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The latest research suggests that mitochondria play a key role in degenerative diseases such as cancer, through their involvement in precipitating cell suicide. Mitochondria, then, are pivotal in power, sex, and suicide. In this fascinating and thought-provoking book, Nick Lane brings together the latest research findings in this exciting field to show how our growing understanding of mitochondria is shedding light on how complex life evolved, why sex arose why don't we just bud? This understanding is of fundamental importance, both in understanding how we and all other complex life came to be, but also in order to be able to control our own illnesses, and delay our degeneration and death.
Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think. In Lynn Margulis proposed the initially scandalous but now universally accepted hypothesis that dominates Lane's early chapters. The consensus among biologists is that in life's early days, 3. Margulis argued that mitochondria were originally free-living organisms, which became engulfed by other cells, which, themselves lacking the mitochondrial capacity to oxidise, struck a different bargain.
Instead of eating the creatures they swallowed, they used the mitochondria to perform the chemical transformations needed to derive the maximum energy from their other foodstuffs. The mitochondria sacrificed Pwer own individuality, but the combined suicidr symbiotic - cells were so efficient that they out-reproduced most other life forms and became the basic stock from which all today's multicellular organisms evolved. Single celled organisms can reproduce by budding; most multicellular forms use sex, in which two cells merge and shuffle their genes. But for this to occur, the merged cell also requires energy, which comes from the mitochondria.
So in sex, one cell, the sperm, is reduced to little more than packaged DNA, while the other, the egg, retains its mitochondria and so provides the essential nurturing environment required for development. Hence the essential biological asymmetry between male and female in reproduction. For mitochondria were once free-living bacteria, and still retain unmistakable traits of their ancestry, including some of their original DNA. Ever since their fateful absorption, the tortuous and unpredictable relationship between the mitochondria and their host cells has forced one evolutionary innovation after another.
Without mitochondria, nothing would exist of the world we know and love. Their story is the story of life itself.
Today, mitochondria are central to research into human prehistory, genetic diseases, cell suicide, fertility, ageing, bioenergetics, sex and the eukaryotic cell. Piecing together puzzles from the forefront of research, this book paints a sweeping canvas that will thrill all who are interested in biology, while also contributing to evolutionary thinking and debate. Mitochondrial Dawn by Odra Noel In the primordial unfertilised egg cell the mitochondria encircle the nucleus in blue in discrete rings, separated by membranes. A dialogue between the nuclear and mitochondrial genes appears to take place. The requirement for one set of mitochondria to work with one set of nuclear genes means that sperm mitochondria are excluded from the fertilised egg; and this is why we need to have two sexes — the female provides mitochondria tuned to a particular nucleus, while the sperm are adapted to exclude their mitochondria from the next generation.
Why did apoptosis or cell death evolve in multicellular organisms? How is the lifespan of organisms decided? Why do we age?
Why do we die? Is there a way to extend our lifespans? Can we ever hick truly immortal? Can the whole process be replicated in other parts of the universe? Can there be intelligent aliens? Poser are the wide variety of audacious questions asked and almost answered in this book and the astonishing thing for me was that it was not some five thousand pages longer with this sort of blindingly vast scope. And the answer to all these questions? How elegant that such a simple answer can be provided for such a variety of fundamental questions. One is almost tended to rekindle hope for the famous 42 now.