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Since magnetic sound-striped film was no longer available, Amatteur area of the film could be used to expand the picture aspect ratio in a process similar to the creation of Super 16 from standard 16mm film. The creators of Sleep Always  experimented with widening the camera gate to expose into the sound track region to achieve this. In MarchPro8mm introduced its own version of the widened gate, achieving aspect ratio of 1. A working prototype was displayed at the Consumer Electronics Show, with Kodak hoping to begin production in spring Equipment and film[ edit ] Equipment[ edit ] Although Kodak launched Super 8 and had its own cameras, hundreds of other companies produced Super 8 camera, projection, editing, and sound equipment.
Some of the more notable companies that made Super 8 equipment include: Inthe consumer Amageur for Super 8 collapsed. Most of the independent zample were forced into bankruptcy or merged, Amareur the demand for Super 8 evaporated overnight. Some companies remained in business until when many gave up completely on movie film equipment. A few later re-emerged including Beaulieu, who, inintroduced a new camera and Super 8 Sound that introduced a new version of its full-coat recorder, the Mag IV. The companies in which Super 8 was only a division simply closed.
Kodak continued support for Super 8. A few products re-emerged with new features such as crystal sync and Max8. Recently, new companies have started producing new Super 8 cameras.
InLogmar introduced a limited edition completely new Super 8 Camera,  and inKodak showed a concept of a new Super 8 camera at the CES expo. These cameras can be found at specialized retailers and distributors and at auction sites such as eBay. Several Super 8 specialty companies such as: There are now more varieties of Super 8 film available than ever before. InKodak announced that Ektachrome will soon be available again in the Super 8 format. It has become common to see it sold with processing prepaid and for it to be sold with scan to digital services at a variety of different levels from Standard Definition Digital to 4K Data.
It can even be purchased to include all the logistic associated with the process including film processing, scanning and internet delivery of image and mail in and back services. Over time, several companies began to offer sync sound options for Super 8 filmmaking. Two companies introduced comprehensive sound systems for Super 8. These were Super8 Sound Inc. With double system, as it was called, sound and picture are recorded separately. This was fine for more professional applications and for education about film production, but for consumers it was simply too complex and expensive. Standard 8mm had the stripe between the perforations and the edge of the film which made good contact with a magnetic head problematic.
A balance stripe was added on the opposite edge to facilitate spooling of the film. The Ektasound cartridge was deeper than Amateur sample movie silent cartridge to allow access of the camera's recording head. Thus, silent cameras could not accept Ektasound cartridges, but Ektasound cameras and projectors accepted silent cartridges. Projectors, that could record and play sound, appeared before sound cameras. The sound was recorded 18 frames in advance of the picture as opposed to 56 frames for standard 8mm.
This short distance of just 3 inches facilitated the relatively compact size of the later sound cartridges. Some projectors used the balance stripe to provide a second channel for stereo sound. Super 8mm was also specified with an optical sound track. This occupied the same location as the magnetic track. Picture to sound separation in this format was 22 frames. Projectors and cameras obviously could not record sound in this system, but optical sound package movies became briefly popular, particularly in Europe mainly because they were cheaper to produce - though the projectors cost more. Although the optical sound should have been inferior in quality to magnetic sound running at 3.
The middle hole is left empty as it would otherwise make it harder to quickly read the script. In the United Kingdom, double-hole-punched A4 paper is normally used, which is slightly taller and narrower than US letter size. Some UK writers format the scripts for use in the US letter size, especially when their scripts are to be read by American producers, since the pages would otherwise be cropped when printed on US paper. Because each country's standard paper size is difficult to obtain in the other country, British writers often send an electronic copy to American producers, or crop the A4 size to US letter.
A British script may be bound by a single brad at the top left hand side of the page, making flicking through the paper easier during script meetings. Screenplays are usually bound with a light card stock cover and back page, often showing the logo of the production company or agency submitting the script, covers are there to protect the script during handling which can reduce the strength of the paper. This is especially important if the script is likely to pass through the hands of several people or through the post. Increasingly, reading copies of screenplays that is, those distributed by producers and agencies in the hope of attracting finance or talent are distributed printed on both sides of the paper often professionally bound to reduce paper waste.
Occasionally they are reduced to half-size to make a small book which is convenient to read or put in a pocket; this is generally for use by the director or production crew during shooting. Although most writing contracts continue to stipulate physical delivery of three or more copies of a finished script, it is common for scripts to be delivered electronically via email. Screenplay formats[ edit ] Screenplays and teleplays use a set of standardizations, beginning with proper formatting. These rules are in part to serve the practical purpose of making scripts uniformly readable "blueprints" of movies, and also to serve as a way of distinguishing a professional from an amateur.
Screenplay for The Godfather Part IITurin, Italy Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios, whether in the US or elsewhere in the world, are expected to conform to a standard typographical style known widely as the studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings, action, transitions, dialog, character names, shots and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page, as well as font size and line spacing. One reason for this is that, when rendered in studio format, most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of approximately one page per minute. This rule of thumb is widely contested — a page of dialogue usually occupies less screen time than a page of action, for example, and it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer — and yet it continues to hold sway in modern Hollywood.
There are no camera directions, shot descriptions, and editing instructions The absence of these things tells me that the writer is focusing on telling a story and not on trying to direct the movie on paper. These shot lists masquerading as screenplays are enormously difficult to read — you get so lost in angles and cuts and moves that the story itself goes missing. There are no coffins Amateur writers love to adorn their scripts with lots of irrelevant bells and whistles — fake posters for the movie they hope will be made from their screenplays usually with the writing credits situated far more prominently than they would ever be on real one-sheetsillustrated covers, graphic novel adaptations, mix tapes containing the songs featured in the scripts, and specially produced promotional merchandise — key chains, postcards, bobble heads, etc.
Unfortunately, in my experience, most of the scripts that accompany this junk are usually just awful, probably because the authors put Amzteur imagination and effort into their tchotchkes than they do into their screenplays. I did not listen to the podcast and do not intend to, but apparently the gist of the criticism is that I set myself up as some sort of all-wise, all-knowing screenwriting guru who lays out rules for script writing that the podcast hosts do not find valid. As regular readers of this column know, I have never presented myself as any sort of guru.
I am an experienced script writer, reader and consultant and present myself only as such.
The directive is easily overlooked solely by the mlvie, though issue screenplays can also be funded on life works, or real consumers and personals. Nothing with beards to make it big in the big-screen diving is bad to want a full-length movie or spec.
I do not insist that I know it all or that people must do as I say — my position has always been that if you find my advice mofie, please use it and if you do not, then please feel free to ignore it. I have no problem with anyone disagreeing with anything I write, but I do not understand why the podcasters felt the need to be so vitriolic. I especially do not understand personal attacks on my character from two people who have never met me and do not know me.