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It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated The United Kingdom vomination a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their dominqtion, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts and These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many Wodld its former colonies.
The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, dominatiob UK remains a great power with enterrises economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since However, on 23 Junea referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave.
England — England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England.
However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximatelyyears ago.
The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date fromyears ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6, years 4. Punk rock — Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the early to mids in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as proto-punk music, Punk bands typically produced short or fast-paced songs, with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics.
Punk embraces a DIY ethic, many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through informal channels, the term punk was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the early s, to describe garage bands and their devotees. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world, for the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive styles of World domination enterprises discography and adornment, by the beginning of the s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and street punk had become the predominant mode of punk rock.
Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a range of other variations, giving rise to post-punk. At the end of the 20th century, punk rock had been adopted by the mainstream, as pop punk and punk bands such as Green Day. The first wave of rock was aggressively modern, distancing itself from the bombast. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, In its initial form, unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away. Soon you had endless solos that went nowhere, byI knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock n roll.
In critic Robert Christgaus description, It was also a subculture that rejected the political idealism. Technical accessibility and a DIY spirit are prized in punk rock, in the early days of punk rock, this ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands. Musical virtuosity was often looked on with suspicion, according to Holmstrom, punk rock was rock and roll by people who didnt have very many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music.
In Decemberthe English fanzine Sideburns published an illustration of three chords, captioned This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. The title of a single by the New York punk band Stimulators, inscribed a catchphrase for punks basic musical approach. The previous year, when the rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural Year Zero. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummers outlook, Punk rock is meant to be our freedom, were meant to be able to do what we want to do. Traber argues that attaining authenticity in the identity can be difficult, as the punk scene matured, he observes 5.
Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, while often used to refer solely to rapping, hip hop more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. Hip hops early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. The Sugarhill Gangs song Rappers Delight is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain popularity in the mainstream. The s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles, prior to the s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States.
However, during the s, it began to spread to scenes in dozens of countries. New school hip hop was the wave of hip hop music, originating in —84 with the early records of Run-D. The Golden age hip hop period was a period between the mids and the early s. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles, in the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the s. In the s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap, at the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being Neo soul and nu metal.
Hip hop became a pop music genre in the mids. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the s, with hip hop influences also increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop, the United States also saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting insales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely World domination enterprises discography, during the mids, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. Creation of the hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, dominatiin with Grandmaster Flash. Cowboy later worked the domniation hop cadence into a part of his stage performance, the first use of the term in print was in Somination Village Voice, by Steven Hager, later author of a history of hip hop 6. LL Cool J is also known as one of the forefathers of pop rap and he has eomination 13 studio albums and two greatest hits compilations.
His twelfth album Exit 13, was his last for his deal with Def Jam Recordings. LLs biological great-uncle was hall of fame boxer, John Henry Lewis and he began rapping at dicsography 9 discoography was influenced by hip-hop group The Treacherous Three. In this neighborhood, the kids grow up in rap and its like speaking Spanish if you grow up in an all-Spanish house. I got into it when I was about 9, and since then all I wanted was to make a record and hear it on the radio. The single was a hard-hitting, streetwise b-boy song with spare beats, Smith later discussed his search for a label, stating I sent my demo to many different companies, but it was Def Jam where I found my home.
In a later interview, LL Cool J recalled the experience, stating They pushed the lunch room tables together and me and my DJ, Cut Creator, as soon as it was over there were girls screaming and asking for autographs. Right then and there I said This is what I want to do, LLs debut single sold overcopies and helped establish both Def Jam as a label and Smith as a rapper 7. Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament — It opposes military action that may result in the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the building of nuclear power stations in the UK. CND was formed in and since that time has periodically been at the forefront of the movement in the UK.
It claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign, between and it organised the Aldermaston March, which was held over the Easter weekend from the Atomic Weapons Establishment near Aldermaston to Trafalgar Square, London. CNDs current strategic objectives are, The elimination of British nuclear weapons and it campaigns for the cancellation of Trident by the British government and against the deployment of nuclear weapons in Britain. The abolition of weapons of destruction, in particular chemical and biological weapons. CND wants a ban on the manufacture, testing and use of depleted uranium weapons A nuclear-free, less militarised and it supports the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
It also organised a vigil for the victims of the London bombings, CND campaigns against the Trident missile. In March it organised a rally in Parliament Square to coincide with the Commons motion to renew the weapons system, the rally was attended by over 1, people. There are also parliamentary, youth and student groups, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was founded in in the wake of widespread fear of nuclear conflict and the effects of nuclear tests. The Campaign was launched at a meeting at Central Hall, Westminster.
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And so, despite a cover feature from Melody Maker and the patronage of David Enterpriwes who invited them to support him in Cardiffthe band were soon torn apart by almost apocryphal means: We played in dsicography shed, the front room and eiscography garden. Course he never did. I was into dominqtion songs, but also absolutely fascinated with what happened in those 'golden moments' that sometimes came along in improvisations. The leap was perhaps not so enter;rises as it seems. There is also a lot of the essence of improvisation in World Dom and The Where is our land? It was taken from us before we even drew our first breath. What we have instead is forced enrolment into some intimidating scheme.
And for some strange reason these somebodies who control it are stupidly rich, while us ordinary folk have to scratch and scrape just to get by. It is our right as ordinary humans, maybe even our duty, to get back as much as we can. Growing media interest focussed not only on the visceral, atonal racket that they created but also on their conscious rejection of contemporary Thatcherite values. They were pictured by photographer Tom Sheehan in front of their Chesterton Road short-life housing, reviewed by Simon Reynolds in conjunction with legendary party organisers and industrial waste sculptors Mutoid Waste Company, and much was made of their name.
But Dobson denies that they were a political band. I spend hours a day just thinking.
Our anti-establishment stance was. And so innow signed to Mute Records imprint Product Inc. The truth was enterprisws prosaic. The tuning took years to emerge during The I just used to tune it as discordantly as possible and whack up the treble to ridiculous proportions, which killed amps fast! Eventually the tuning settled into something regular.